(London, GB 1936 (1988 ed.): The Science of Numbers
ONE(1): Unity, or the Monad, expressed by the figure 1, symbolizes the Omnipotent Deity, the "oneness" of Divine Purpose, the beginning of all things, the singleness yet boundlessness of the Godhead. It represents the pinnacle or highest point, the focus of the circumference, the hub of the universe, and the single Parent of the whole world. The universal symbol which conveys this idea is a point enclosed by a circle. Because the Deity is generally conceived of as being masculine and the male species is believed to have been created first, the Monad is generally associated with the male rather than the female sex.
Character Influences: Those who come under the influence of the Monad will show great tenacity and a singleness of purpose. It indicates self-reliance, an unswerving desire for action, resolve, ingenuity, concentration, great achievement and possibly genius. Persons controlled by the number 1 can be implicitly relied upon; they seem to take pleasure in the assumption of great responsibilities. They will not be content to lead aimless, subordinate lives, but will seek new and perhaps hazardous paths which will lead them onward to their goal. Usually they will be friendly and considerate towards others and will do all they can to assist those in distress.
The less admirable influences which may be exerted by the number 1 are intolerance, narrow-mindedness, conceit, obstinacy. Those who are highly ambitious and resolute may be inclined to depreciate the value of the work or actions of others. They may consider themselves above receiving advice from their friends and stubbornly persist in an enterprise which is obviously doomed to failure. Thus they may sometimes be disliked by reason of their haughty independence. If you are influenced by the Monad you should attempt to control your self-confidence and be ready to accept the opinions of older and more experienced people.
TWO(2): Duality, the number 2, or the Duad as it was called by the Pythagoreans, represents both diversity and equality or justice. The idea of of diversity originates from the conception of two opposites, such as night and day, good and evil, riches and poverty, joy and pain, love and hate. Yet, at the same time, for the sake of justice and equality, two sides of a question must always be heard, while the existence of such things as brotherhood and love must necessarily be dependent upon the presence of two persons. Thus the Duad also stands for balance, harmony, concord, sympathy, and response. Two points when joined together form the extremities of a line, which, therefore, is the symbol of duality. The number 2, as directly following the Monad, is traditionally associated with women rather than men.
Character Influences: The characteristic of those who are influenced by the number 2 will be that of placidity. They have not the singleness of purpose of those under the Monad and therefore are capable of showing greater consideration for the feelings of others. Implicit justice and a hatred of all forms of selfishness or egotism are among their chief traits. These people will go out of their way to avoid strife and discord, whether it concerns themselves or not. They are very easy to make friends with, and usually become a great success socially because of their ability to sympathize with all types of character.
There are no actively adverse influences of the Duad; the faults sometimes found in those under its influence are mostly passive ones. Number 2 may produce a nature that is too sympathetic, a quality which can degenerate into irresolution or changeability. The great contrasts which it presents to the mind of those swayed by it may create a sense of fatalism and indifference, while the distaste for strife may cause a shirking of all worry and difficulties, and a refusal to shoulder responsibility. Such persons would do well to incorporate with their own a little of the character represented by number 1, thus compensating their natural lack of forcefulness.
THREE(3): The Ternary, the number 3, or the Triad, was esteemed by many ancient philosophers as the perfect number. The Pythagoreans believed in three worlds - the Inferior, the Superior, and the Supreme - while the followers of Socrates and Plato acknowledged three great principles - Matter, Idea, God. The three great virtues necessary for married bliss were considered to be justice, fortitude and prudence. In the Christian religion the Trinity is seen as an outstanding example of the Triad, while the Scriptures tell of three wise men of the East with their offering of three gifts, of three archangels and three godly virtues. Pagan religions abound in threes; victims were led three times round the altar before sacrifice, prayers were repeated three times to ensure their being answered, the priestess of Apollo sat upon a tripod called the "tripod of truth".
There are three dimensions of space - height, length and breadth; three stages of time - past, present and future; three states of matter - solid, liquid and gaseous; and three kingdoms of Nature - animal, vegetable and mineral. The Triad may be said to represent comprehensiveness and fulfilment, and it is symbolized by the triangle - the figure formed by joining three points. Like number 1, it is regarded as being essentially a male number.
Character Influences: Fortitude and freedom are the keynotes of this number. Persons under its influence will usually be forceful and frank, and possess a great talent for "getting on". They will have brilliant successes in all kinds of enterprises and will become especially notable for their organizing ability. Any novel project or invention will hold a tremendous fascination for them, and their knack of making other people see things from their point of view will make them especially successful as salesmen and promoters of new schemes.
They are generally happy, make cheerful companions, and can adapt themselves to any kind of company. Their enthusiasm may incline them to be talkative, but their high spirits are so infectious that their exuberance is welcomed. Optimism is ever present - no one under the Triad will be depressed for long by business or private worries.
The excessive independence exercised by number 3 may cause an attitude of indifference, which sometimes gives offence. Other people's ideas and cherished projects may be too hastily brushed aside by those of the Triad, for the latter are inclined to be solely occupied with their own schemes. Over-confidence often causes spectacular failures, sudden rises to fame and then a startling downfall; while the versatile enthusiasm displayed may give rise to impatience with any matter which is not progressing as quickly as was hoped, resulting in an inability to carry through any one project to the very end. Tenacity and endurance are the two attributes which should be chiefly cultivated.
FOUR(4): The Quaternary, the number 4, or the Tetrad was regarded by many of the ancients as symbolic of truth, while the old Greeks considered it to be the root of all things, as representing what were believed to be the four elements - fire, air, earth and water. It is interesting to note the Pythagoras sometimes referred to the Deity as the Tetrad, or the "four sacred letters", owing to the fact that the name of God was Zeus in Greek. We find the word God represented by four letters in many other languages - Dieu in French; Gott in German; Godt in Dutch; Godh in Danish; Goth in Swedish; Deva in Sanskrit; Dios in Spanish; Deus in Latin; Idio in Italian; and we have our own name, Lord.
The four liberal sciences were considered to be astronomy, geometry, music and arithmetic; man was declared to possess the four properties of mind, science, opinion and sense; and there were the four accepted states of death, judgment, heaven and hell. We have the four winds, four points of the compass and the four seasons. The square symbolizes the Tetrad, and it may be said to stand for solidity and reality.
Character Influences: The number 4 produces the stolid type of character which is unwaveringly loyal and imperturbable in almost all circumstances. Great steadiness and tenacity are displayed in work, honesty and ability for undertaking unpleasant or wearisome tasks being dominant traits of this nature. There is also an implicit obedience to authority, and a meticulous regard for all the conventions.
Friends of those influenced by the Tetrad will find them deep and faithful in their affections, and always ready to appreciate the good side of others rather than to condemn their weaknesses. Forcefulness, will-power and abstemiousness are also present, although number 4 never produces the dogmatic or intolerant type. Practical occupations rather than those requiring great imaginative powers are most suitable for those under the Tetrad.
Clumsiness and an inclination towards dullness are the chief faults of those influenced by the number 4. They may display a certain lack of initiative and excessive conservatism, which refuses to recognize the unconventional or the extraordinary. In consequence, if these people should find themselves in strange surroundings, they are reluctant to adapt themselves and take long to do so. They may also be rather lacking in personal ideals, and therefore incapable of any really great achievement. Some of the dash and independence of number 3 would greatly assist their progress; combined with their natural attribute of steadfastness, it would help them on their way towards spiritual and material success.
FIVE(5): The Quincunx, the number 5, or the Pentad was regarded by the followers of Pythagoras, as well as by Jewish and Arabic philosophers, as the symbol of health. The Egyptians saw in it a mark of prosperity, but on the whole the Pentad seems universally to have symbolized marriage, fecundity and propagation. This belief probably had its origin in the idea of 5 being the union of 3 and 2, or a male and female number. In ancient Rome, its significance was emphasized by the burning of five tapers during the marriage ceremony. Many heathen religions included prayers asking help from five gods to instill five virtues into the hearts of prospective wives.
Mohammedanism preaches five religious duties - prayer, fasting, purification, alms and pilgrimage to Mecca. Our own scriptures contain many indications that the number 5 seems to have been regarded with a particular significance. Benjamin was given five changes of raiment by Joseph; the latter brought five only of his brothers to Pharaoh; and David chose five smooth stones with which to slay the giant Goliath. Moreover, man possesses five senses - sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste; also five digits on each of his hands and feet.
The pentad is represented geometrically by a regular, five-sided plane figure or else by a pyramid. It also takes the shape of a five-pointed star, which is one form of the ancient Seal of Solomon.
Character Influences: Dash and adventure characterize the 5 type. It signifies a very vivacious spirit and an aptitude for undertaking many and varied tasks - although not necessarily with great success. Courage in face of difficulties is generally displayed, while the bodily and mental health are unusually good. Those under the Pentad have many passionate love affairs, for they are very susceptible; but they also make gay and amusing companions to those of their own sex. They are seldom disheartened by adverse circumstances, for they can find happiness and amusement in the most unexpected places. They are very responsive to the feelings of others, and are quick to grasp the significance of a situation and act accordingly. Great explorers and travellers are usually produced by the number 5.
Irresponsibility and rashness are among the adverse significances, and these two faults may be the cause of much unhappiness to others. Although probably sincere at the time, people of the 5 type may embark upon a love affair which they are quick to bring to an end upon meeting a new and perhaps more fascinating companion. They are often lacking in concentration and unable to attend to urgent and commonplace affairs. In consequence, they are sometimes condemned as being unreliable or even untrustworthy. These faults do not lie deep, however, and are the result of thoughtlessness rather than ingrained perversity. The placid and steadying influence of number 2 can do much to counteract the faults of number 5.